A routine for evaluating integrals of expressions involving
an arbitrary unspecified function and its derivatives. It may be used
by LOAD(ANTID); , after which, the function ANTIDIFF may be used.
E.g. ANTIDIFF(G,X,U(X)); where G is the expression involving U(X)
(U(X) arbitrary) and its derivatives, whose integral with respect to X
is desired.
The functions NONZEROANDFREEOF and LINEAR are also defined, as well as
ANTID. ANTID is the same as ANTIDIFF except that it returns a list of
two parts, the first part is the integrated part of the expression and
the second part of the list is the non-integrable remainder.
Function:ANTIDIFF-
See ANTID.
property:ATOMGRAD
- the atomic gradient property of an expression.
May be set by GRADEF.
Function:ATVALUE(form, list, value)
enables the user to assign the boundary
value value to form at the points specified by list.
(C1) ATVALUE(F(X,Y),[X=0,Y=1],A**2)$
The form must be a function, f(v1,v2,...), or a derivative,
DIFF(f(v1,v2,...),vi,ni,vj,nj,...) in which the functional arguments
explicitly appear (ni is the order of differentiation with respect
vi).
The list of equations determine the "boundary" at which the value
is given; list may be a list of equations, as above, or a single
equation, vi = expr.
The symbols @1, @2,... will be used to represent the functional
variables v1,v2,... when atvalues are displayed.
PRINTPROPS([f1, f2,...], ATVALUE) will display the atvalues of
the functions f1,f2,... as specified in previously given uses of the
ATVALUE function. If the list contains just one element then the
element can be given without being in a list. If a first argument of
ALL is given then atvalues for all functions which have them will be
displayed. Do EXAMPLE(ATVALUE); for an example.
Function:CARTAN-
The exterior calculus of differential forms is a basic tool
of differential geometry developed by Elie Cartan and has important
applications in the theory of partial differential equations. The
present implementation is due to F.B. Estabrook and H.D. Wahlquist.
The program is self-explanatory and can be accessed by doing
batch("cartan"); which will give a description with
examples.
Function:DELTA(t)
This is the Dirac Delta function. Currently only LAPLACE
knows about the DELTA function:
(C1) LAPLACE(DELTA(T-A)*SIN(B*T),T,S);
Is A positive, negative or zero?
POS;
- A S
(D1) SIN(A B) %E
Variable:DEPENDENCIES
default: [] - the list of atoms which have functional
dependencies (set up by the DEPENDS or GRADEF functions). The command
DEPENDENCIES has been replaced by the DEPENDS command. Do
DESCRIBE(DEPENDS);
declares functional
dependencies for variables to be used by DIFF.
DEPENDS([F,G],[X,Y],[R,S],[U,V,W],U,T)
informs DIFF that F and G
depend on X and Y, that R and S depend on U,V, and W, and that U
depends on T. The arguments to DEPENDS are evaluated. The variables
in each funlist are declared to depend on all the variables in the
next varlist. A funlist can contain the name of an atomic variable or
array. In the latter case, it is assumed that all the elements of the
array depend on all the variables in the succeeding varlist.
Initially, DIFF(F,X) is 0; executing DEPENDS(F,X) causes future
differentiations of F with respect to X to give dF/dX or Y (if
DERIVABBREV:TRUE).
(C1) DEPENDS([F,G],[X,Y],[R,S],[U,V,W],U,T);
(D1) [F(X, Y), G(X, Y), R(U, V, W), S(U, V, W), U(T)]
(C2) DEPENDENCIES;
(D2) [F(X, Y), G(X, Y), R(U, V, W), S(U, V, W), U(T)]
(C3) DIFF(R.S,U);
dR dS
(D3) -- . S + R . --
dU dU
Since MACSYMA knows the chain rule for symbolic derivatives, it takes
advantage of the given dependencies as follows:
(C4) DIFF(R.S,T);
dR dU dS dU
(D4) (-- --) . S + R . (-- --)
dU dT dU dT
If we set
(C5) DERIVABBREV:TRUE;
(D5) TRUE
then re-executing the command C4, we obtain
(C6) "C4;
(D6) (R U ) . S + R . (S U )
U T U T
To eliminate a previously declared dependency, the REMOVE command can
be used. For example, to say that R no longer depends on U as
declared in C1, the user can type
REMOVE(R,DEPENDENCY)
This will
eliminate all dependencies that may have been declared for R.
(C7) REMOVE(R,DEPENDENCY);
(D7) DONE
(C8) "C4;
(D8) R . (S U )
U T
CAVEAT: DIFF is the only MACSYMA command which uses DEPENDENCIES
information. The arguments to INTEGRATE, LAPLACE, etc. must be given
their dependencies explicitly in the command, e.g., INTEGRATE(F(X),X).
Variable:DERIVABBREV
default: [FALSE] if TRUE will cause derivatives to
display as subscripts.
Function:DERIVDEGREE(exp, dv, iv)
finds the highest degree of the derivative
of the dependent variable dv with respect to the independent variable
iv occuring in exp.
causes only differentiations with respect to
the indicated variables, within the EV command.
Variable:DERIVSUBST
default: [FALSE] - controls non-syntactic substitutions
such as
SUBST(X,'DIFF(Y,T),'DIFF(Y,T,2));
If DERIVSUBST is set to
true, this gives 'DIFF(X,T).
special symbol:DIFF
[flag] for ev causes all differentiations indicated in exp to be
performed.
Function:DIFF(exp, v1, n1, v2, n2, ...)
DIFF differentiates exp with respect to
each vi, ni times. If just the first derivative with respect to one
variable is desired then the form DIFF(exp,v) may be used. If the
noun form of the function is required (as, for example, when writing a
differential equation), 'DIFF should be used and this will display in
a two dimensional format.
DERIVABBREV[FALSE] if TRUE will cause derivatives to display as
subscripts.
DIFF(exp) gives the "total differential", that is, the sum of the
derivatives of exp with respect to each of its variables times the
function DEL of the variable. No further simplification of DEL is
offered.
(C1) DIFF(EXP(F(X)),X,2);
2
F(X) d F(X) d 2
(D1) %E (--- F(X)) + %E (-- (F(X)))
2 dX
dX
(C2) DERIVABBREV:TRUE$
(C3) 'INTEGRATE(F(X,Y),Y,G(X),H(X));
H(X)
/
[
(D3) I F(X, Y) dY
]
/
G(X)
(C4) DIFF(%,X);
H(X)
/
[
(D4) I F(X, Y) dY + F(X, H(X)) H(X) - F(X, G(X)) G(X)
] X X X
/
G(X)
For the tensor package, the following modifications have been
incorporated:
1) the derivatives of any indexed objects in exp will have the
variables vi appended as additional arguments. Then all the
derivative indices will be sorted.
2) the vi may be integers from 1 up to the value of the variable
DIMENSION[default value: 4]. This will cause the differentiation to
be carried out wrt the vith member of the list COORDINATES which
should be set to a list of the names of the coordinates, e.g.,
[x,y,z,t]. If COORDINATES is bound to an atomic variable, then that
variable subscripted by vi will be used for the variable of
differentiation. This permits an array of coordinate names or
subscripted names like X[1], X[2],... to be used. If COORDINATES has
not been assigned a value, then the variables will be treated as in 1)
above.
Function:DSCALAR(function)
applies the scalar d'Alembertian to the scalar
function.
(C41) DEPENDENCIES(FIELD(R));
(D41) [FIELD(R)]
(C42) DSCALAR(FIELD);
(D43)
-M
%E ((FIELD N - FIELD M + 2 FIELD ) R + 4 FIELD )
R R R R R R R
- -----------------------------------------------------
2 R
Function:EXPRESS(expression)
The result uses the noun form of any
derivatives arising from expansion of the vector differential
operators. To force evaluation of these derivatives, the built-in EV
function can be used together with the DIFF evflag, after using the
built-in DEPENDS function to establish any new implicit dependencies.
Function:GENDIFF
Sometimes DIFF(E,X,N) can be reduced even though N is
symbolic.
batch("gendif.mc")$
and you can try, for example,
DIFF(%E^(A*X),X,Q)
by using GENDIFF rather than DIFF. Unevaluable
items come out quoted. Some items are in terms of "GENFACT", which
see.
Function:GRADEF(f(x1, ..., xn), g1, ..., gn)
defines the derivatives of the
function f with respect to its n arguments. That is, df/dxi = gi,
etc. If fewer than n gradients, say i, are given, then they refer to
the first i arguments of f. The xi are merely dummy variables as in
function definition headers and are used to indicate the ith argument
of f. All arguments to GRADEF except the first are evaluated so that
if g is a defined function then it is invoked and the result is used.
Gradients are needed when, for example, a function is not known
explicitly but its first derivatives are and it is desired to obtain
higher order derivatives. GRADEF may also be used to redefine the
derivatives of MACSYMA's predefined functions (e.g.
GRADEF(SIN(X),SQRT(1-SIN(X)**2)) ). It is not permissible to use
GRADEF on subscripted functions.
GRADEFS is a list of the functions which have been given gradients by
use of the GRADEF command (i.e. GRADEF(f(x1, ..., xn), g1, ..., gn)).
PRINTPROPS([f1,f2,...],GRADEF) may be used to display the gradefs of
the functions f1,f2,..
GRADEF(a,v,exp) may be used to state that the derivative of the atomic
variable a with respect to v is exp. This automatically does a
DEPENDS(a,v).
PRINTPROPS([a1,a2,...],ATOMGRAD) may be used to display the atomic
gradient properties of a1,a2,...
Variable:GRADEFS
default: [] - a list of the functions which have been given
gradients by use of the GRADEF command (i.e. GRADEF(f(x1, ..., xn),
g1, ..., gn).)
Function:LAPLACE(exp, ovar, lvar)
takes the Laplace transform of exp with
respect to the variable ovar and transform parameter lvar. Exp may
only involve the functions EXP, LOG, SIN, COS, SINH, COSH, and ERF.
It may also be a linear, constant coefficient differential equation in
which case ATVALUE of the dependent variable will be used. These may
be supplied either before or after the transform is taken. Since the
initial conditions must be specified at zero, if one has boundary
conditions imposed elsewhere he can impose these on the general
solution and eliminate the constants by solving the general solution
for them and substituting their values back. Exp may also involve
convolution integrals. Functional relationships must be explicitly
represented in order for LAPLACE to work properly. That is, if F
depends on X and Y it must be written as F(X,Y) wherever F occurs as
in LAPLACE('DIFF(F(X,Y),X),X,S). LAPLACE is not affected by DEPENDENCIES
set up with the DEPENDS command.
(C1) LAPLACE(%E**(2*T+A)*SIN(T)*T,T,S);
A
2 %E (S - 2)
(D1) ---------------
2 2
((S - 2) + 1)
Function:UNDIFF(exp)
returns an expression equivalent to exp but with all
derivatives of indexed objects replaced by the noun form of the DIFF
function with arguments which would yield that indexed object if the
differentiation were carried out. This is useful when it is desired
to replace a differentiated indexed object with some function
definition and then carry out the differentiation by saying
EV(...,DIFF).